© Fraunhofer IME | Klaus-Peter Kappest

Bioaccumulation describes the enrichment of chemicals in organisms. The uptake of substances occurs either via food (biomagnification) or directly from the abiotic environment (bioconcentration). Experimentally determined bioaccumulation factors are an important element in the risk assessment of chemical substances. The basis for bioconcentration studies with fish is the OECD Guideline 305 (flow-through fish test).

Especially for highly lipophilic chemicals (log P > 5) bioconcentration studies are often difficult to perform. Lipophilic substances are poorly water soluble, which makes the adjustment of stable test concentrations difficult and, under certain conditions, may cause inexact measurements of the test substance in the medium. For poorly soluble chemicals an alternative test design for the performance of bioaccumulation studies based on feeding experiments is available in the scope of the revised OECD guideline 305. The aim of these studies is the determination of the biomagnification factor (BMF).

New OECD Guideline published



The Hyalella azteca Bioconcentration Test (HYBIT) provides a non-vertebrate test for bioconcentration in aquatic environments.

HYBIT at Fraunhofer IME

We perform the Hyalella bioconcentration test with animals raised in the laboratory of Fraunhofer IME under standardized conditions. Fraunhofer IME offers testing adhering to GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) principles.


Kühr, S.; Esser, D.; Schlechtriem C.: Invertebrate Species for the Bioavailability and Accumulation Assessment of Manufactured Polymer-Based Nano- and Microplastics. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21.02.2022, doi: 10.1002/etc.5315.

Kuehr, S., Kaegi, R., Maletzki, D., Schlechtriem, C.:
Testing the bioaccumulation potential of manufactured nanomaterials in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella Azteca. Chemosphere (Oxford), Vol.263, January 2021 (DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127961)

Kuehr, S., Kosfeld, V. & Schlechtriem, C.:
Bioaccumulation assessment of nanomaterials using freshwater invertebrate species. Environmental Sciences Europe, 2021 Jan 17, Vol.33(9) DOI:

Mueller, C., Trapp, S., Polesel, F., Kuehr, S., Schlechtriem, C.:
Biomagnification of ionizable organic compounds in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental Sciences Europe, 2020 Dec 19, Vol.32(159) DOI:

Rüdel, H ; Kosfeld, V ; Fliedner, A ; Radermacher, G ; Schlechtriem, C ; Duffek, A ; Rauert, C ; Koschorreck, J:
Selection and application of trophic magnification factors for priority substances to normalize freshwater fish monitoring data under the European Water Framework Directive: a case study. Environmental Sciences Europe, 2020 Oct 17, Vol.32(1) DOI: 10.1186/s12302-020-00404-8

Schlechtriem, Christian; Knopf, Burkhard; Kühr, Sebastian; Meisterjahn, Boris; Schröder, Nicola:
UBA-Texte 18-2020: Development of a method to determine the bioaccumulation of manufactured nanomaterials in filtering organisms (Bivalvia). Dessau-Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt (2020), ISSN: 1862-4804

Kuehr, S., Klehm, J., Stehr, C., Menzel, M., Schlechtriem, C.:
Unravelling the uptake pathway and accumulation of silver from manufactured silver nanoparticles in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca using correlative microscopy. NanoImpact, Vol.19, July 2020 (DOI: 10.1016/j.impact.2020.100239)

Zeumer, R., Galhano, V., Monteiro, M. S, Kuehr, S., Knopf, B., Meisterjahn, B., Soares, A. M.V.M, Loureiro, S., Lopes, I., Schlechtriem, C.:
Chronic effects of wastewater-borne silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The Science of the total environment, Vol.723, 25 June 2020 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137974)

Kuehr, S., Meisterjahn, B., Schroeder, N., Knopf, B., Voelker, D., Schwirn, K., Schlechtriem, C.:
Testing the bioaccumulation of manufactured nanomaterials in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea using a new test method. Environmental Science: Nano, Vol.7(2), 2020, pp.535-553 (DOI: 10.1039/c9en01112a)

Kosfeld, V., Fu, Q., Ebersbach, I., Esser, D., Schauerte, A., Bischof, I., Hollender, J., Schlechtriem, C.:
Comparison of Alternative Methods for Bioaccumulation Assessment: Scope and Limitations of In Vitro Depletion Assays with Rainbow Trout and Bioconcentration Tests in the Freshwater Amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol.39 (9), 2020, pp.1813-1825 (DOI: 10.1002/etc.4791)

Fu, Qiuguo ; Fedrizzi, Davide ; Kosfeld, Verena ; Schlechtriem, Christian ; Ganz, Vera ; Derrer, Samuel ; Rentsch, Daniel ; Hollender, Juliane:
Biotransformation Changes Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Diclofenac in Aquatic Organisms. Environmental science & technology, 07 April 2020, Vol.54(7), pp.4400-4408 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b07127

Galhano, Victor ; Hartmann, Sarah ; Monteiro, Marta S ; Zeumer, Richard ; Mozhayeva, Darya ; Steinhoff, Benedikt ; Müller, Katharina ; Prenzel, Kirsten ; Kunze, Jan ; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter ; Schönherr, Holger ; Engelhard, Carsten ; Schlechtriem, Christian ; Loureiro, Susana ; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M ; Witte, Klaudia ; Lopes, Isabel:
Impact of wastewater-borne nanoparticles of silver and titanium dioxide on the swimming behaviour and biochemical markers of Daphnia magna: An integrated approach. Aquatic toxicology, March 2020, Vol.220 DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105404

Zeumer, R.,  Hermsen, L., Kaegi, R., Kühr, S., Knopf, B., Schlechtriem, C.:
Bioavailability of silver from wastewater and planktonic food borne silver nanoparticles in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The Science of the total environment, Vol.706, 01 March 2020, (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135695)

Raths, J., Kühr, S., Schlechtriem, C.:

Bioconcentration, metabolism and spatial distribution of 14C‐labeled laurate in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca.
Environmental toxicology and chemistry: An international journal / von/by Ward, C. H.. - Pensacola, Florida, USA: SETAC. - 0730-7268 (ISSN). - 39 (2020) 2, pp. 310-322 (DOI: 10.1002/etc.4623)

Schlechtriem, C., Kampe, S., Bruckert, H.-J., Bischof, I., Ebersbach, I., Kosfeld, V., Kotthoff, M., Schäfers, C., L’Haridon, J.:
Bioconcentration studies with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca: are the results predictive of bioconcentration in fish? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol.26 (2), 2019, pp.1628-1641 (DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3677-4)

Kühr, S., Schneider, S., Meisterjahn, B., Schlich, K., Hund-Rinke, K., Schlechtriem, C.:
Silver nanoparticles in sewage treatment plant effluents: chronic effects and accumulation of silver in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environmental Sciences Europe, Vol.30 (1), 2018, pp.1-11 (DOI: 10.1186/s12302-018-0137-1)

Kampe, S., Kaegi, R., Schlich, K., Wasmuth, C., Hollert, H., Schlechtriem, C.:
Silver nanoparticles in sewage sludge: Bioavailability of sulfidized silver to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry—Volume 37, Number 6, 2018, pp. 1606–1613 (DOI: 10.1002/etc.4102)

Goss, K.-U., Linden, L., Ulrich, N., Schlechtriem, C.:
Revisiting elimination half live as an indicator for bioaccumulation in fish and terrestrial mammals. Chemosphere, Vol 210, November 2018, Pages 341-346

Nichols, J., Fay, K., Bernhard, M.J., Bischof, I., Davis, J., Halder, M., Hu, J., Johanning, K., Laue, H., Nabb, D., Schlechtriem, C., Segner, H., Swintek, J., Weeks, J., Embry, M.:
Reliability of In Vitro Methods used to Measure Intrinsic Clearance of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals by Fish: Results of an International Ring Trial. Toxicological Sciences, Volume 164, Issue 2, 2018, Pages 563–575 (DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy113)

Böhm, L., Düring, R.‐A., Bruckert, H.‐J., Schlechtriem, C.:
Can Solid-phase microextraction replace solvent extraction for water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies with highly hydrophobic organic chemicals? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2017, pp.2887 – 2894 (DOI: 10.1002/etc.3854)

Böhm, L., Düring, R.‐A., Bruckert, H.‐J., Schlechtriem, C.:
Solid-phase microextraction replace solvent extraction for water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies with highly hydrophobic organic chemicals? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 36, No. 11, 2017, pp.2887 – 2894 (DOI: 10.1002/etc.3854)

Kampe, S., Schlechtriem, C.:
Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Online first (2016) (DOI: 10.1002/etc.3473)

Schlechtriem, C., Böhm, L., Bebon, R., Bruckert, H.-J., Düring, R.-A.:
Fish bioconcentration studies with column generated analyte concentrations of highly hydrophobic organic chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Accepted manuscript online (2016) (DOI: 10.1002/etc.3635)

Böhm, L., Schlechtriem, C., Düring, R.A.:
Sorption of highly hydrophobic chemicals to organic matter relevant for fish bioconcentration studies. Environmental Science & Technology 50 (15) (2016) 8316–8323 (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01778)

Brinkmann, M., Schlechtriem, C., Reininghaus, M., Eichbaum, K., Buchinger, S., Reifferscheid, G., Hollert, H., Preuss, T.:
Cross-species extrapolation of uptake and disposition of neutral organic chemicals using a multi-species physiologically based toxicokinetic model. Environmental Science & Technology 50 (4) (2016) 1914-1923 (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b06158)

Treu, G., Drost, W., Jöhncke, U., Rauert, C., Schlechtriem, C.:
The Dessau Workshop on Bioaccumulation: State of the art, challenges and regulatory implications. Environmental Sciences Europe 27:34 (2015) (DOI: 10.1186/s12302-015-0067-0)

Schlechtriem, C., Kampe, S., Bruckert, H.J., Schaefers, C., L´Haridon, J..
Bioconcentration tests with fish and the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Are the results comparable? SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, 3-7 May 2015, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Goeritz, I., Falk, S., Stahl, T., Schäfers, C., Schlechtriem, C.:
Biomagnification and Tissue Distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32 (9) (2013) 2078–2088

Schlechtriem, C., Fliedner, A., and Schäfers, C.:
Determination of lipid content in fish samples from bioaccumulation studies: Contributions to the revision of guideline OECD 305. Environmental Sciences Europe (2012) 24:13

Düring, R-A., Böhm, L., Schlechtriem, C.:
Solid-phase microextraction for fish bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305. Environmental Sciences Europe (2012) 24: 4