Substance-related Monitoring

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A number of legally binding regulations require the testing of compliance to environmental quality standards or other limit values. Examples are national regulations, e.g. the German Federal Soil Protection Act, or EU guidelines, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The survey of the values requires an efficient environmental monitoring on a regional or national level, depending on the treated problem. In this context, Fraunhofer IME offers consultancy and conceptional support.

Publications SumPFAS

Göckener et al: Tracking down unknown PFAS pollution – The direct TOP assay in spatial monitoring of surface waters in Germany. (2023) Science of The Total Environment

Göckener et al: Long-Term Trends of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Suspended Particular Matter from German Rivers Using the Direct Total Oxidizable Precursor (dTOP) Assay. (2022) Environmental Science & Technology.


Rüdel H, Radermacher G, Fliedner A, Lohmann N, Koschorreck J, Duffek A (2022):
Tissue concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in German freshwater fish: derivation of fillet-to-whole fish conversion factors and assessment of potential risks. Chemosphere 292, 133483, (

Kosfeld V, Rüdel H, Schlechtriem C, Rauert C, Koschorreck J (2021):
Food web on ice: a pragmatic approach to investigate the trophic magnification of chemicals of concern. Environ Sci Europe 33, 93 (2021), (

Göckener B, Fliedner A, Rüdel H, Fettig I, Koschorreck J (2021):
Exploring Unknown Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the German Environment – the Total Oxidizable Precursor Assay as Helpful Tool in Research and Regulation. Sci Total Environ 782, 146825, (

Knopf B, Rüdel H, Hansknecht D, Klawonn T, Kreuzer K (2021):
Determination of low environmental free cyanide concentrations in freshwaters. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 16244-16252, (

Rüdel, H., Radermacher, G., Fliedner, A., Lohmann, N., Duffek, A.:
Chemicals of emerging concern in marine specimens of the German Environmental Specimen Bank. Environmental Science Europe 32:36 (2020) (DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-2487-y)

Rüdel, H., Radermacher, G., Fliedner, A., Lohmann, N., Duffek, A.:
A field study in support of the monitoring of priority substances in German freshwater fish: derivation of fillet-to-whole fish conversion factors. Environmental Science Europe 32:13 (2020) (DOI:10.1186/s12302-020-0295-)

Knopf, B., Fliedner, A., Radermacher, G., Rüdel, H., Paulus, M., Pirntke, U., Koschorreck, J.:
Seasonal variability in metal and metalloid burdens of mussels: using data from the German Environmental Specimen Bank to evaluate implications for long‑term mussel monitoring programs. Environmental Science Europe 32:7 (2020) (DOI: 10.1186/s12302-020-0289-7)

Rüdel, H., Körner, W., Letzel, T., Neumann., M., Nödler, K., Reemtsma, T.:
Persistent, mobile and toxic substances in the environment: a spotlight on current research and regulatory activities. Environmental Science Europe 32:5 (2020) (DOI: 10.1186/s12302-019-0286-x)

Radermacher, G., Rüdel, H., Wesch, C., Böhnhardt, A, Koschorreck, J.:
Retrospective analysis of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in archived German fish samples covering a period of two decades. Science of the Total Environment 706 (2020) 136011 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136011)

Kotthoff, M., Fliedner, A., Göckener, B., Bücking, M., Biegel-Engler, A., Koschorreck, J.:
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the German environment – Levels and patterns in different matrices. Science of the Total Environment 740 (2020) 140116 (

Fliedner, A., Rüdel, H., Koschorreck, J.:
Nutzung der Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse des Biotamonitorings der Umweltprobenbank für die Umsetzung des WRRL-Fischmonitorings.
Korrespondenz Wasserwirtschaft 12 (2019) 336-341 (DOI: 10.3243/kwe2019.06.001)

Fliedner, A., Rüdel, H., Knopf, B., Lohmann, N., Paulus, M., Jud, M., Pirntke, U., Koschorreck, J.:
Assessment of seafood contamination under the marine strategy framework directive: contributions of the German environmental specimen bank. Environmental Science Pollution Research 27 (2018) 26939-26956 (DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2728-1)

Kotthoff, M., Rüdel, H., Jürling, H., Severin, K., Hennecke, S., Friesen, A., Koschorreck, J.:
First evidence of anticoagulant rodenticides in fish and suspended particulate matter: spatial and temporal distribution in German freshwater aquatic systems. Environmental Science Pollution Research 26 (2018) 7315-7325 (DOI: 10.1007%2Fs11356-018-1385-8)

Fliedner, A., Rüdel, H., Lohmann, N., Buchmeier, G., Koschorreck, J.:
Biota monitoring under the Water Framework Directive: On tissue choice and fish species selection. Environmental Pollution 235 (2018) 129-140 (

Rüdel, H., Müller, J., Nowak, J., Ricking, M., Klein, R., Kotthoff, M.:
Hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers in fish and suspended particulate matter from selected European waters - trend monitoring and environmental quality standard compliance. Environmental Science Pollution Research 24 (2017) 18048-18062 (DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9469-4)

Fliedner, A., Rüdel, H., Teubner, D., Buchmeier, G., Lowis, J., Heiss, C., Wellmitz, J., Koschorreck, J.:
Biota monitoring and the Water Framework Directive - can normalization overcome shortcomings in sampling strategies? Environmental Science Pollution Research 23 (2016) 21927-21939 (DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7442-2)

Fliedner, A., Lohmann, N., Rüdel, H., Teubner, D., Wellmitz, J., Koschorreck, J.:
Current levels and trends of selected EU Water Framework Directive priority substances in freshwater fish from the German environmental specimen bank. Environmental Pollution 216 (2016) 866-876 (

Nguetseng, R., Fliedner, A., Knopf, B., Lebreton, B., Quack, M., Rüdel, H.:
Retrospective monitoring of mercury in fish from selected European freshwater and estuary sites
. Chemosphere 134 (2015) 427-434
(DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.094)

Rüdel, H., Díaz Muñiz, C., Garelick, H., Kandile, N. G., Miller, B. W., Pantoja Munoz, L., Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M., Purchase, D., Shevah, Y., Sprang, P. van, Vijver, M., Vink, J. P. M.:
Consideration of the bioavailability of metal/metalloid species in freshwaters: Experiences regarding the implementation of biotic ligand model-based approaches in risk assessment frameworks. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International: ESPR 22 (2015) No.10: 7405-7421 (DOI: 10.1186/s12302-020-00312-x )