Exposure Modeling

© Photo MEV-Verlag

Agricultural landscape with hedges, North Germany

Predicting pesticide concentrations in the environment

Assessments of a potential exposure of ground water, of populations in ground or surface waters or in terrestrial ecosystems are based on different computer models simulating the fate of plant protection products in the environment. Fraunhofer IME has been involved in the development of some of these models.

We offer exposure analyses based on standardized models such as:

    - FOCUS PELMO, FOCUS MACRO, FOCUS PEARL (ground water)

    - STEPS 1-2 in FOCUS, SWASH with PRZM, MACRO and TOXSWA, SWAN (surface water, steps 1 to 4)

For specific problems we offer adapted or newly developed models, e.g.:

    - Consideration of specific processes (e.g. photodegradation)

    - Spatially differentiated modeling (GIS-techniques), as mentioned in FOCUS (2009)

    - Development of specific higher tier scenarios

    - Inverse modeling to determine model input parameters for higher tier simulations in ground water protection

We are also experienced in evaluating own or external studies according to FOCUS (2006) and EFSA (2010), e.g.:

    - Assessment of degradation studies in the laboratory (soil, water/sediment) using non-linear adaptation models considering recommended kinetics:
      Single First Order (SFO), First Order Multi Compartment (FOMC),  Double First Order in Parallel (DFOP) and Hockey Stick (HS)

   - Evaluation of outdoor degradation studies according to the requirements of EFSA (2010)

   - Normalization of degradation studies on standard situations (20 °C, soil humidity: pF 2) according to FOCUS (2000)

   - Normalisation of outdoor experiments investigation the degradation behavior according to FOCUS (2006)

Relevant documents

EFSA (2015):
EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (panel members at the time of adoption: Aagaard, A., Brock, T., Capri, E., Duquesne, S., Filipic, M., Hernandez-Jerez, A.-F., Hirsch-Ernst, K. I., Hougaard Bennekou, S., Klein, M., Kuhl, T., Laskowski, R., Liess, M., Mantovani, A., Ockleford, C., Ossendorp, B., Pickford, D., Smith, R., Sousa, P., Sundh, I., Tiktak, A., van der Linden, T.):
Scientific opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. EFSA Journal (2015) 13 (2): 3996 [212 pp.] Doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3996

EFSA (2015):
EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (panel members at the time of adoption: Aagaard, A., Brock, T., Capri, E., Duquesne, S., Filipic, M., Hernandez-Jerez, A.-F., Hirsch-Ernst, K. I., Hougaard Bennekou, S., Klein, M., Kuhl, T., Laskowski, R., Liess, M., Mantovani, A., Ockleford, C., Ossendorp, B., Pickford, D., Smith, R., Sousa, P., Sundh, I., Tiktak, A., van der Linden, T.): Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level. EFSA Journal (2015) 13 (6): 4125 [91 pp.] Doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4125

EFSA (2015):
EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (panel members at the time of adoption: Aagaard, A., Brock, T., Capri, E., Duquesne, S., Filipic, M., Hernandez-Jerez, A.-F., Hirsch-Ernst, K. I., Hougaard Bennekou, S., Klein, M., Kuhl, T., Laskowski, R., Liess, M., Mantovani, A., Ockleford, C., Ossendorp, B., Smith, R., Sousa, P., Sundh, I., Tiktak, A., van der Linden, T.): Statement on the FERA guidance proposal: “Guidance on how aged sorption studies for pesticides should be conducted, analysed and used in regulatory assessments”, EFSA Journal (2015) 13 (7): 4175 [54 pp.] Doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4175

European Commission (2014):
Assessing Potential for Movement of Active Substances and their Metabolites to Ground Water in the EU. Report of the FOCUS Ground Water Work Group, EC Document Reference Sanco/13144/2010 version 3, 613 pp.

EFSA (2014):
EFSA Guidance Document for evaluating laboratory and field dissipation studies to obtain DegT50 values of active substances of plant protection products and transformation products of these active substances in soil. EFSA Journal 2014;12(5):3662 (DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3662)

EFSA (2013):
Guidance on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters. EFSA Journal 2013;11(7):3290 [268 pp.]
(DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3290)

FOCUS (2006):
Guidance Document on Estimating Persistence and Degradation Kinetics from Environmental Fate Studies on Pesticides in EU Registration. Report of the FOCUS Work Group on Degradation Kinetics, EC Document Reference Sanco/10058/2005 version
2.0, 434 pp.

FOCUS (2000):
FOCUS groundwater scenarios in the EU review of active
substances
.
Report of the FOCUS Groundwater Scenarios Workgroup, EC
Document Reference Sanco/321/2000 rev.2, 202 pp. (Download)

Selected publications

Tiktak, A., Boesten, J. J. T. I., Egsmose, M., Gardi, C., Klein, M., Vanderborght, J.:
European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to pesticides. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes 48 (2013) No. 9: 703-716 (DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2013.780525)
Klein, M.:
Long term surface water simulations with STEPS-1-2-3-4.
In: A.A.M. Del Re, E. Capri, G. Fragoulis, M. Trevisan (eds.) Environmental Fate and Ecological Effects of Pesticides, La Goliardica Pavese, Piacenza (2007) 950-957; ISBN 978-88-7830-473-4 (Abstract)
Klein, M.:
Die Berechnung der Versickerungsneigung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln in der Gleiskörperumgebung mit PELMO. In: Hurle, K. (Hrsg.): Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderheft 18: Beiträge zur 21. Deutschen Arbeitsbesprechung über Fragen der Unkrautbiologie und - bekämpfung: 5.–7. März 2002, Stuttgart Hohenheim, Ulmer, Stuttgart (2002) 405-412 (Abstract)
Klein, M.:
Berechnung zonaler und kompartimentbezogener Halbwertszeiten persistenter organischer Schadstoffe (POPs) in der Umwelt.
BUA-Bericht 232, Beratergremium für Altstoffe (Hrsg.), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft (2002) 91 S. (Abstract)